## Venn Diagrams

10 Jun

The private library Blog had a post with some word play relating to sound, spelling and meaning of words in the English language. From their post on Homographic Homophones:

English is one of the most difficult languages in the world for a non-native speaker to learn.  One of the reasons why this is so is that English has a large number of words that are pronounced the same as other words (i.e., they are homophones) even though they have quite different meanings.  Homophones such as parepair and pear, for example, have the same pronunciation but are spelled differently and have different meanings (heterographic homophones).  Other homophones — tender (locomotive),tender (feeling) and tender (resignation), for instance — are spelled the same and pronounced the same (homographic homophones) but have different meanings (i.e., they are homonyms).

Got all that?  Wikipedia has a nice Venn diagram that may help you sort it out:

Venn Diagram displaying meaning, spelling, and pronunciation of words (Source: Wikipedia)

Of course, you could also list the above combinations in a table. If you’re interested, Carol Moore has done just that on her Buzzy Bee riddle page.

A beautifully symmetric 5 set Venn diagram drawn from ellipses has been proposed by Branko Grünbaum and drawn by Wikipedia contributor Cmglee:

Symmetrical_5-set_Venn_diagram (Source: Wikipedia)

Such set-based diagrams invite a more mathematical notation. Cmglee annotates his image with this snippet:

Labels have been simplified for greater readability; for example, A denotes A ∩ Bc ∩ Cc ∩ Dc ∩ Ec (or A ∩ ~B ∩ ~C ∩ ~D ∩ ~E), while BCE denotes Ac ∩ B ∩ C ∩ Dc ∩ E (or ~A ∩ B ∩ C ∩ ~D ∩ E).

If you search the Wolfram Demonstration Project for ‘Venn Diagram’, you get several interactive diagrams.

Venn Diagram Demonstration Projects (Source: Wolfram Demonstration Project)

These diagrams are interactive. For example, they allow you to click on any subset and then have that set highlighted and the corresponding mathematical set notation displayed accordingly. Interesting and fun to learn.

Speaking of fun: Venn diagrams are also effectively used in many different areas, two of which I’d like to leave you with here:

Data Science Venn Diagram (Source: drewconway.com)

And last but not least, Stephen Wildish’s Pancake Venn Diagram: